Diabetes : Signs and symptoms , causes , treatment

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Diabetes (Medical term- diabetes mellitus) is a numerous metabolic diseases having high blood glucose or blood sugar due to inadequate insulin production in the pancreas or improper responds of body cells to insulin produced or both the cases.

Signs and symptoms

  • Frequent urination
  • Excessive thirsty
  • Excess hunger
  • Weight gain or unusual weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Irritation
  • Problems in vision
  • wounds or cuts are not healing quickly
  • Skin problems (itchiness or infections)
  • Red, tender and swollen gums, gum disease and infections
  • Erectile dysfunction in men
  • Numbness in hands and feet

Types of Diabetes

  1. Type-1 diabetes: It is a chronic condition in which pancreas induces little or no insulin. It is an autoimmune disease which destroys pancreas cells.

Possible causes

  • Susceptible genes
  • Auto antigens which destroys cells
  • Viruses – rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and retroviruses
  • Infants exposed to dairy products
  • Excess nitrogen content in drinking water
  • Lower Vitamin D intake
  1. Type-2 diabetes: It is a chronic condition in which there are not enough insulin for proper function or the cells in the body become insulin resistance so that they don’t react to insulin. This is the common form of diabetes.

            Possible causes

  • Overweight and obesity
  • Physically inactive
  • Excess intake of soda and soft sugary drinks
  • Aging
  • Low testosterone levels
  • Genetics
  1. Prediabetes: This is the condition in which the blood sugar is high but not higher than type-2 diabetes. The cells of the body are becoming insulin resistant. It is noticed that the persons with prediabetes have also occurred some damage in circulatory system and to the heart.
  2. Gestational diabetes: This condition of diabetes occurs during pregnancy due to high amount of glucose in blood and their body’s inadequate insulin production. The treatment of gestational diabetes is essential otherwise there will be problems during childbirth and the child may bear underweight.

Possible causes

  • Overweight
  • Excess intake of animal meat before pregnancy
  • Genetics
  • Previous diabetes history or childbirth issues

Diagnosis of diabetes

  • Urine test
  • Blood test


  • For Type-1 diabetes there is no known cure. This lasts lifetime. Doctor will serve medications to control diabetes. This is mostly treated with insulin injections and insulin pumps with special diet and exercises.
  • Type-2 diabetes lasts lifetime in most cases. This can be controlled through medication, healthy diet, physical activities and exercise and weight control. This is treated with insulin injections, tablets and gastric bypass surgery also.

Complications of uncontrolled diabetes

  • Eye problems including loss of vision, diabetic retinopathy
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Skin infections
  • Periodontal diseases
  • Kidney failure
  • Nerve damage
  • Erectile dysfunction in men and vaginal dryness in women that ruins sex life
  • Neuropathy, ulcers
  • Heart diseases
  • Hypertension
  • Mental disorder
  • Hearing loss
  • Peripheral arterial diseases which influence proper function of leg
  • Stroke
  • Wounds will take longer to heal



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